Public Perception, Not Per Se Rules, Determines Registrability of Marks with Generic Terms

Today in U.S.P.T.O v. B.V., the Supreme Court rejected the USPTO’s position that BOOKING.COM was unregistrable because it merely a combination of a generic term and a tld designator.  The Supreme Court rejected the application of a per se rule against the registrability of compound marks based on generic terms, finding instead that consumer perception of the term should control.  Judge Ginsberg noting that “[b]ecause ‘’ is not a generic name to consumers, it is not generic.”

The Court distinguished Goodyear’s India Rubber Glove Mfg. Co. v. Goodyear Rubber Co., 128 U. S. 598 (1888), where it held that a generic corporate designation added to a generic term does not confer trademark eligibility.  The Court found the comparison faulty because of the nature of the internet — a “” term could convey to consumers a source-identifying characteristic: an association with a particular website.

The Court also rejected a per se rule that every generic term combined with a tld is automatically not generic, holding that whether any given term is generic “depends on whether consumers in fact perceive that term as the name of a class or, instead, as a term capable of dis­tinguishing among members of the class.”

It will be interesting to see what the USPTO does with the application on remand.  Will it require a disclaimer of the generic term “booking” and the tld “.com”?  If so, then the applicant will have disclaimed the entire mark apart from itself.

It will also be interesting to see what will do with its registration.  No reasonable competitor would consider using “” as their own brand, because they would be driving customers to  What is the point?  Can tie up booking combined with other tld’s? conceded that would be “weak” (Tr. of Oral Arg. 66). Indeed they will get a registration only because of the association of the term with a particular website.  What of a (which presently appears to be available)?  Would that create a likelihood of confusion, or would the fame of that won them a registration make such confusion unlikely?  Competitors are entitled to use the generic term “booking”, what remains to be seen is how.

Rogers Defense, Blockbuster or Flop?

Australian motorcycle company (and film critics) Deus Ex Machina Motorcycles Pty. Ltd., has sued Warner Bros. and MGM Studios for trademark infringement for dressing the female lead in a jacket bearing their registered trademark “Deus ex Machina” in the “flop” “schmaltzy teen-style love story,” [Complaint, Para. 33] The Sun Is Also a Star.

The Sun Is Also a Star is a teen drama film directed by Ry Russo-Young and written by Tracy Oliver, based upon the young adult novel of the same name by Nicola Yoon. The phrase “deus ex machina” is essential to Yoon’s story, where its presence on the female protagonist Natasha’s backpack gets her noticed by Daniel and sets the love story in motion. The movie moved the phrase from the book’s backpack to a jacket. According to a 2019 article in, the jacket plays a critical role in the film. Costume designer Deirdra Govan,  created the jacket from scratch in three-and-a-half weeks with the help of her mighty team of assistants, tailors, set costumers, and costume supervisor, working on roughly 15 different styles before landing on the one.

The Complaint sets up another First Amendment battle between artists and brand owners. Yoon no-doubt selected the phrase for its well known literary meaning; a heavily merchandised motorcycle company with a curated tough-guy image was probably the last think on her mind. Still, the movie moved the phrase from a backpack to a jacket. It also does not help that Charles Melton, who played teenager Daniel Bae in the movie, posed for pictures posted to social media to help promote the movie in which he wore clothing actually sold by Deus Ex Machina [Complaint, Para. 31].

It seems that Warner Bros. and MGM Studios have a reasonable First Amendment Rogers defense, and unless tough-guy biker boys are sneaking into schmaltzy teen-style love stories, a reasonable argument that there is no likelihood of confusion. While the movie may have flopped, hopefully their defense will be a block buster.

Color the TTAB Embarrassed; Packaging Colors can be Inherently Distinctive

In re Forney Industries, Inc., [2019-1073] (April 8, 2020), the Federal Circuit vacated and remanded the TTAB’s affirmance of the refusal to register Forney’s proposed mark on grounds that the proposed mark is of a type that can never be inherently distinctive.

On May 1, 2014, Forney filed Trademark Application No. 86/269,096 for its proposed mark for packaging for various welding and machining goods based on use in commerce under Section 1(a) of the Lanham Act.

The Examiner refused registration under Sections 1, 2, and 45 of the Lanham Act because the mark was not inherently distinctive. The examining attorney noted that such marks are registrable only on the Supplemental Register or on the Principal Register with sufficient proof of acquired distinctiveness.

Forney appealed this decision to the Board, arguing that its proposed mark should be treated as product packaging claiming multiple colors. According to Forney, its proposed mark is product packaging trade dress that may be inherently distinctive and, therefore, registrable without proof of acquired distinctiveness, but the Board affirmed the examining attorney’s refusal to register, treating the proposed mark as a color mark consisting of multiple colors applied to product packaging. The Board found that, when assessing marks consisting of color, there is no distinction between colors applied to products and colors applied to product packaging. The Board found no legal distinction between a mark consisting of a single color and one, such as Forney’s, consisting of multiple colors with-out additional elements, e.g., shapes or designs.

The Federal Circuit found that the Board erred in two ways: (1) by concluding that a color-based trade dress mark can never be inherently distinctive without differentiating between product design and product packaging marks; and (2) by concluding (presumably in the alternative) that product packaging marks that employ color cannot be inherently distinctive in the absence of an association with a well-defined peripheral shape or border.

The Federal Circuit held that color marks can be inherently distinctive when used on product packaging, depending upon the character of the color design. As the Supreme Court made clear, inherent distinctiveness turns on whether consumers would be predisposed to equate the color feature with the source. While it is true that color is usually perceived as ornamentation a distinct color-based product packaging mark can indicate the source of the goods to a consumer, and, therefore, can be inherently distinctive.

The Federal Circuit found that as a source indicator, Forney’s multi-color product packaging mark is more akin to the mark at issue in Two Pesos than those at issue in Qualitex and Wal-mart. The Federal Circuit said it falls firmly within the category of marks the Court described as potential source identifiers. Supreme Court precedent simply does not support the Board’s conclusion that a product packaging mark based on color can never be inherently distinctive. The Federal Circuit noted that it was not the only court to conclude that color marks on product packaging can be inherently distinctive.

The Federal Circuit concluded that Forney’s proposed mark comprises the color red fading into yellow in a gradient, with a horizontal black bar at the end of the gradient. It is possible that such a mark can be perceived by consumers to suggest the source of the goods in that type of packaging. Accordingly, rather than blanketly holding that colors alone cannot be inherently distinctive, the Board should have considered whether Forney’s mark satisfies the Federal Circuit’s criteria for inherent distinctiveness.

On the alternate grounds, the Federal Circuit said that without explaining why it was doing so, the Board found that a color may only be inherently distinctive when used in conjunction with a distinctive peripheral shape or border. The Federal Circuit said that “nothing in the case law mandates such a rule.”

In determining the inherent distinctiveness of trade dress, the question to be answered is whether the trade dress makes such an impression on consumers that they will assume the trade dress is associated with a particular source. To assess that question, the Board must look to the following factors: (1) whether the trade dress is a “common” basic shape or design; (2) whether it is unique or unusual in the particular field; (3) whether it is a mere refinement of a commonly-adopted and well-known form of ornamentation for a particular class of goods viewed by the public as a dress or ornamentation for the goods; or, inapplicable here, (4) whether it is capable of creating a commercial impression distinct from the accompanying words. Id. (collecting cases). These factors are all different ways to determine whether it is reasonable to assume that customers in the relevant market will perceive the trade dress as an indicator of origin.

The Federal Circuit concluded that the Board erred in stating that a multi-color product packaging mark can never be inherently distinctive. To the extent the Board’s decision suggests that a multi-color mark must be associated with a specific peripheral shape in order to be inherently distinctive, that too, was error. Accordingly, the Federal Circuit vacated and remanded for the Board to consider, whether, for the uses proposed, Forney’s proposed mark is inherently distinctive under the Seabrook factors, considering the impression created by an overall view of the elements claimed.

Descriptive Use or Infringement?

It was not April Fools joke — JaM Cellars, Inc. sued The Wine Group LLC for trademark infringement and unfair competition, complaining that Franzia’s BOLD & JAMMY boxed wine infringes their JaM trademark:

and Franzia’s RICH & BUTTERY wine infringed JaM’s BUTTER wine:

JaM’s name is a mash-up of the owner’s names:

while BOLD & JAMMY is arguably a description of Franzia’s wine, “jammy” (according to wikipedia) being a common descriptor: “Jammy: A wine that is rich in fruit but maybe lacking in tannins.” Is Franzia describing, infringing, or both?

Butter is arguably descriptive of JaM’s Butter Chardonay. JaM says:

According to wikipedia, Buttery, like jammy, is a common descriptor of wine: “Buttery: A wine that has gone through malolactic fermentation and has a rich, creamy mouthfeel with flavors reminiscent of butter.”

Again the question is whether Franzia is describing its product, infringing JaM’s marks, or both.

Franzia’s biggest vulnerability may come from the change in its packaging, which JaM attributes to an intent to trade off of JaM’s good will:

Both parties may need to brush upon

Both sides may need to brush up 15 USC 1115(b)(4), which provides:

That the use of the name, term, or device charged to be an infringement is a use, otherwise than as a mark, of the party’s individual name in his own business, or of the individual name of anyone in privity with such party, or of a term or device which is descriptive of and used fairly and in good faith only to describe the goods or services of such party, or their geographic origin

Endless Litigation

Bruce Brown Films, LLC, producer of the 1966 classic surfer film Endless Summer has sued Nike and assorted others for Federal Trademark Infringement, Federal Unfair Competition, Federal Trademark Dilution, Common Law Trademark for using the term Endless Summer in a marketing campaign.

Say . . . are those the new shoes from that movie from 1966?

The Nike display certainly uses the phrase “endless summer” but is not as a brand for its shoes. It is difficult to believe that anyone seeing the display believes that the shoes are somehow connected to the 1966 movie.

Nike did not do itself any favors by selecting artwork “inspired” buy the movie poster:

However while someone might confuse the source of Nike’s artwork, would someone really going to confuse the source of Nike’s shoes?

Bruce Brown Films, LLC holds a trademark registration on ENDLESS SUMMER for athletic shoes:

But Nike’s use of endless summer is to evoke a common feeling, not identify the source of Nike shoes. it will be interesting to see how the case develops.

Oh Yes You Are.

On March 26 Adidas prevailed on Summary Judgment in a trademark infringement suit alleging that its use of “You’re Never Done” infringed U.S. Reg. No. 4,928,298 on YOU’RE NEVER DONE for a variety of products including athletic shoes.

Plaintiff’s Reg. No. 4,928,298.

The court held that plaintiff did not use the mark in commerce before defendant. The parties did not dispute that Plaintiff did not make any product sales, because potential customers could not do so through plaintiff’s website until after suit was filed. Plaintiff tried to rely on non-sales activity, such as purchasing the domain names, establishing the website, and ordering products bearing the marks. However, the district court held that these activities, taken together, reflect “mere preparation to use a term as a trademark,” rather than actual use.

Plaintiff’s specimen showing the mark on products that weren’t actually on sale.

Ultimately, the Court found that Plaintiff’s registration on the YOU’RE NEVER DONE was void ab initio. The Court then turned to the question of whether plaintiff had common law rights in YOU”RE NEVER DONE

The court found that plaintiff did not show that he used the marks in commerce such that he is entitled to common law rights in them. Just as the Court found with respect to the plaintiff’s registration, Plaintiff’s non-sales activity relating to YOU’RE NEVER DONE reflects “mere preparation” rather than actual use. The Court found that Adidas started its campaign in March 2018 while plaintiff conceded its actual use did not begin until October 2019. Accordingly, even if plaintiff had “used” the mark in commerce, his alleged use postdates Defendant’s use, thus depriving him of any common law right in the marks.

The Court granted summary judgment in favor of defendant on the Lanham Act, and on plaintiff’s state law claims as well..

Pocket Stitching Trademark is a Pain in Walmart’s A**

On March 24, 2020, American Eagle Outfitters sued Walmart in the Western District of Pennsylvania (2:20-cv-00412-DSC) complaining that the stitching on the rear pocket of Walmart’s jeans is confusingly similar to American Eagle’s “unique, distinctive, and proprietary pocket stitching design.” American Eagle alleges that Walmart’s misuse of its mark on a line of lower-priced jeans threatens its reputation.

Opportune or Opportunistic?

The trademark register is like the rings on a tree — revealing over time what is on the minds of the public. This is once again proved in the context of the Covid -19 pandemic. Just four days after the first reported case of Covid-19 in the United States, a U.S. Trademark application was filed for FLU MD for dietary and nutritional supplements. This may even have been coincidental, but it was soon filed by applications on WUHAN VAX, FIGHT THE FLU KIT, CORONAVIRUS SURVIVAL GUIDE, COVID-19 VAX, and CORONABLOK.

By the time of the first Covid-19 death in the United States on February 29, 2020, at least 20 applications apparently related to Covid-19 had been filed. Since February 29, there have been an additional 11 filings, including an applications on COVID 19 for t-shirts and I SURVIVED COVID 19 for clothing.

It seems even a pandemic can’t keep a good market campaign down.

  Serial Number Mark Filing Date Representative Goods
1 88771488 FLU MD January 23, 2020 Dietary and nutritional supplements
2 88774489 WUHAN VAX January 27, 2020 Vaccines, etc.
3 88774506 WUHAN MVAX January 27, 2020 Vaccines, etc.
4 88774522 WUHAN CORONA VAX January 27, 2020 Vaccines, etc.
5 88774534 WUHAN CORONA MVAX January 27, 2020 Vaccines, etc.
6 88777531 FLUDEMIC January 29, 2020 Downloadable software and mobile application for providing information relating to infectious diseases, flu outbreaks and pandemics, immunization information and locations of clinics and health facilities
7 88780060 FIGHT THE FLU KIT January 31, 2020 Disinfecting handwash;etc.
8 88781934 CORONAVAX February 1, 2020 Vaccines
9 88783939 CORONAVIRUS SURVIVAL GUIDE February 4, 2020 Magazines in the field of survival, protection, medicine and pandemics
10 88784020 ESPEROFLU February 4, 2020 Vaccines; etc.
11 88790444 CORONAVIRUS February 9, 2020 Prerecorded audio cassettes featuring music and record albums
12 88792162 FLU ARMOUR February 11, 2020 Online retail store services featuring hazardous material body covers
13 88792612 COVID-19 VAX February 11, 2020 Vaccines
14 88800630 CORONA-V February 18, 2020 Dietary supplement drink mixes
15 88805686 FLU-TONE February 21, 2020 Homeopathic supplements
16 88812499 DELEFLU February 27, 2020 Apparatus for disinfecting water
17 88812822 CORONABLOK February 27, 2020 Vaccines
18 88814254 VIRUS POLICE February 28, 2020 Disinfecting wipes; disinfectant sprays; disinfectants; disinfecting handwash; disinfectant soap
19 88814615 THE CORONA YOU WANT February 28, 2020 Liquor and liqueur beverages, namely, spirits and malt beverage
20 88815650 FLUTEA February 28, 2020 Herb teas for medicinal purposes;
21 88816220 ANTIVIRUS-5 March 1, 2020 Chemical additives for use in the manufacture of cosmetics
22 88816317 VIRUSITEA March 1, 2020 Herbal teas for medicinal purposes
23 88818961 FIGHT THE VIRUS March 3, 2020 Cough drops;etc.
24 88822405 CORONAVIRUSRX March 5, 2020 Respirators for artificial respiration; Fever thermometers
25 88823821 VIRUSHIELD March 6, 2020 Masks for use by medical personnel
26 88824831 ANTIVIRUS PRO March 6, 2020 Dietary and nutritional supplements for IMMUNE SUPPORT
27 88826872 COVID 19
March 9, 2020  
28 88827103 I SURVIVED COVID-19
March 9, 2020  
Clothing, etc.
29 88827108 WE CURED COVID-19
March 9, 2020  
Clothing, etc.
30 88827109 TOGETHER WE SURVIVED COVID-19 March 9, 2020 Clothing, etc.
31 88827271 CORONAKIT March 9, 2020 First aid kits

One Applicant Gets his Registration, but all Trademark Owners may be F-U-C-T

In Iancu v. Brunetti, the Supreme Court extended our right to register offensive trademarks from the merely disparaging, to the outright immoral or scandalous. The Supreme Court reasoned that the “immoral or scandalous” bar discriminates on the basis of viewpoint and thus collides with the Court’s First Amendment doctrine. As a result, Mr. Brunetti is entitled to register F-U-C-T as a trademark.

In the personal opinion of this blogger, the Supreme Court has never really justified how denial of a federal trademark registration in an impingement on speech. The trademark owner is entitled to say whatever it was entitled to say before the refusal. Ironically, the effect of registration is to make it easier for the registrant to voice the same messages, the registration facilitating the enforcement of exclusive rights in the message. Trademarks are source identifiers, not messages, and by facilitating the protection of messages, what is the Court saying about the right of others to convey the same message.

Trademark owners should be wary. Aside from the continued erosion of propriety, the elevation of trademarks to protected speech may make enforcement more difficult against third parties inclined to voice the same or similar message. Already the line between trademark and message on t-shirts is blurred. With the explicit recognition of trademarks are messages, it seems that infringement may be harder to prove, and dilution almost impossible.

To continue its battle against view point discrimination the Supreme Court sacrificed propriety, and by elevating trademarks to protected speech, may have weakened the trademark rights of everyone. One applicant will get his registration, but all trademark owners may be F-U-C-T.

Does Your Trademark Have 401(k)?

Well perhaps not a 401(k), but a trademark does need a retirement plan. When a business a legacy mark with a new mark, the legacy mark may be deemed abandoned, free for anyone to adopt. To the extent that the legacy mark has residual good will, it may be lost to the owner, and may inure to the usurper. This unsatisfactory result can be avoided with a little (retirement) planning.

First, the owner should avoid any external (or internal) statements that the legacy mark it being dropped, eliminated or abandoned. It is sufficient to direct use of the new mark.

Second, the owner should use both the legacy mark and the new mark on product and in advertising, gradually decreasing the prominence of the legacy mark until customers’ loyalty is transferred to the new mark.

Third, the owner should find a version or model of the product on which to continue to use the mark. Ideally, this use would be continuous, but anniversary or special or limited editions can be enough to maintain rights. It may even be possible to introduce the new mark as a premium brand over the legacy brand.

Fourth, the business should step up its use of the legacy mark in connection with warranty and repair services and replacement parts. Registering the legacy mark for these services and parts will help maintain rights in the legacy mark.

Fifth, feature the legacy mark in company/product line histories in printed materials and on the company’s website.

Make no mistake, the only reason that an usurper would adopt another company’s legacy mark is to take the residual good will and divert business from the legacy brand owner. A few simple steps during re-branding can insure that your legacy mark enjoys a happy retirement.